## Macroeconomics Formulas Pdf

Contents 1 TheMarket4 2 BudgetConstraint8 3 Preferences10 4 Utility 14 5 Choice 18 6 Demand 24 7 RevealedPreference27 8 SlutskyEquation30 9 BuyingandSelling33 10IntertemporalChoice37 12Uncertainty39 14ConsumerSurplus43 15MarketDemand46 18Technology48. Connect with social media. Because of such non-randomness, many spot commodity prices cannot […]. For France and Germany real GDP per capita is about 72% of the US level. c ab c b a c b a u Æ 4 2 3 4 3 2 4 3 2 u Æ 4 6 16. 2 - 2016-03-11 Note: Teams have been removed in 2015. Macroeconomics Output Gaps, Unemployment & Inflation Measuring Unemployment Rate Measuring Inflation Potential Output & Output Gaps! Potential Output: Output produced when! economy uses capital and labor at normal! rates (near full capacity)! Think of it as the economy has some long. Other types of fiscal multipliers can also be calculated, like multipliers that. Basic Finance Formulas The complete list of basic finance formulas cheat sheet to know how to manually solve the calculations. Intermediate Macroeconomics: Consumption Eric Sims University of Notre Dame Fall 2012 1 Introduction Consumption is the largest expenditure component in the US economy, accounting for between 60-70 percent of total GDP. In contrast, functions are pre-deﬁned formulas that come with Excel. Macroeconomics. Download the important Maths Formulas and equations PDF to solve the problems easily and score more marks in your Class 10 CBSE Board Exams. troduction to abstract linear algebra for undergraduates, possibly even ﬁrst year students, specializing in mathematics. Download this document for Economics and Business at Maastricht University for free and find more useful study materials for your courses. Let us understand a few concepts of Macroeconomics such as Monetary Policy, Input and Output etc. First, a distinction is made between (a) efficiency in the productionof goods and services and (b) (b) efficiency in the distribution of services from producers to end users. The following. Drawing Marginal Product Curves The marginal product (MP) curve reflects changes in total product (TP) and is drawn using the same horizontal axis. Developed by Robert Solow, it has three basic sources for GDP: labor (L), capital (K) and knowledge (A). The amount of sales necessary to give the owner a profit of $1,200 per week is determined by this break-even point formula: To verify that this answer is reasonable, we prepared the following schedule: As you can see, for the owner to have a profit of $1,200 per week or $62,400 per year, the company's annual sales must triple. An authoritative and comprehensive dictionary containing 2,500 key economic terms with clear, concise definitions. Concrete formulas 115 Reinforced. MatheMatical econoMics Practice ProbleMs and solutions Second Edition G. In the long run, a. These features are very student-focused. Formulas and Nomenclature Binary Ionic Compounds Worksheet Name the following compounds. Consumer Price Index (CPI) CPI in any month = Cost of basket in that month Cost of the same basket. unemployment rate dropped from 8. but intermediary products have to be excluded to avoid double counting and this will lead to an over estimation of the national income. If there is a limit of a certain good, it’s not the government’s job to utilize an equation to distribute it. We will obtain as many equations as there are coordinates. Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money (1936). 1)] ADVERTISEMENTS: Where U is the ordinal utility number, and q1 and q2 are quantities of the two goods, Q1 and Q2, that […]. The journal publishes scholarly research articles in economics by Illinois Wesleyan University undergraduates. S = I in a closed economy (no trade) and S = I + NX in an open economy 3. The classical economists wrote in the early years of capitalism, and they uniformly celebrated. Government, multiple goods. a1/n = n a where a 0 Æ 21/3 = 3 2 Æ 1. courses in Indian universities. The atomic formulas are strings of symbols of the form: (v i ∈v j) or (v i = v j) The collection of formulas of set theory is deﬁned as follows: 1. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. GAS PRICING - A CHALLENGE TO ECONOMIC MODELING A Presentation to the Energy Information Administration Washington August 23, 2012 JAMES T. possible outcomes of the RV (numbers, arranged from the smallest to the. Investment: sY Depreciation: /K. At the household or family level, these factors may include income, wealth, expectations about the level and riskiness of future income or wealth, interest rates, age, education, and family size. Identify the formulas and impact of the. The term estimate refers to the specific numerical value given by the formula for a specific set of sample values (Yi, Xi), i = 1, , N of the observable variables Y and X. GDP = C + I + G + Xn: The expenditure approach to measuring GDP; GDP = R + I + P + SA + W: The income approach to measuring GDP; Calculating nominal GDP: The quantity of various goods produced in a nation times their current prices, added together. Economics GDP Formula. Topics in probability include random variables and probability distributions, in particular the bi-nomial and normal distributions, expectation, variance and covariance, condi-tional probability and independence. Korb University. A recent report might have said, for example, from January 2013 to December 2013, the U. For France and Germany real GDP per capita is about 72% of the US level. Each Solved Problem helps you understand one of the chapter’s learning objectives. The Paper as a Whole 11 4. with MS Excel. The Cowles Foundation has announced the 2020-21 recipients of the Arvid Anderson Prize Fellowship in Economics. The need may be one only during high electricity demand hours (peak load) or the new power may be needed 24 hours a day (base load). “And we may say generally:— the elasticity (or responsiveness) of demand in a market is great or small according as the amount demanded increases much or little for a given fall in. For plumbing purposes, the term multi-storey is applied to buildings that are too tall to be supplied throughout by the normal pressure in the public water mains. low-income countries b. Year Price of Fish Quantity. Standard infant formulas are foods that purport to be for special dietary use, solely as a food. MatheMatical econoMics Practice ProbleMs and solutions Second Edition G. If the period is one month, then the units for the interest rate must be 1/month. ) to provide students with evidence. Reciprocal identities. I start by listing and de ning variables, then parameters, then key equations, and then nally show a couple of graphs. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Agricultural Economics: A Brief Intellectual History Abstract: Agricultural economics arose in the late 19th century, combined the theory of the firm with marketing and organization theory, and developed throughout the 20th century largely as an empirical branch of general economics. Here, I think it is up to the instructor to draw out the mapping between old and new language whenever it might be useful to do so. 1 Production Possibilities Frontiers and Opportunity Costs 42. do not translate grades or credits into our grading and credit point system! We will check the information. UNIX/LIONS - Old Dominion University. The authors use a step-by-step process to show how you can solve the problem. In physics, the change in position is known as velocity or speed. Kara Kockelman, T. Macroeconomics. (6 months = 0. Sargent and John Stachurski. Of particular interest are the determinates of. com with your ideas. Quantitative Economics with Python This website presents a set of lectures on quantitative economic modeling, designed and written by Jesse Perla , Thomas J. Let’s look at the simplest case. The difference between GNP and GDP is the income from the goods and services produced abroad using the labor and property supplied by U. Companies need accurate economic data to justify projects, plan budgets, report reserves and assess price or ownership changes. By taking this fact into consideration it is necessary | Find, read and cite all the research you. The formula varies depending on how complex the version of the income-expenditure model is that you’re using. That is, set aside one to two hours at the same time each day for six days out of the week (Take the seventh day off) for studying statistics. The relation is strongly monotonic if for all x,y ∈ X, x ≥ y,x 6= y implies x ˜ y. Kara Kockelman, T. The following table shows the prices and quantities of each good consumed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. Additional Economics Flashcards. The most recent textbook for the course was James T. Only applicable to bonds and savings accounts. A forest’s two natural resources, the stand and the land, act in conjunction as a composite asset. MutedEnd454) submitted 4 minutes ago by MutedEnd454 Excel 2016 Formulas and Functions (True PDF, EPUB). 3 Macroeconomics LESSON 1 ACTIVITY 20 Answer Key UNIT Figure 20. Empirical Methods in Applied Economics Lecture Notes Jörn-Ste⁄en Pischke LSE October 2005 1 Di⁄erences-in-di⁄erences 1. uk Consultation hours: Friday, 2-3pm, Weeks 1,3-8 (MT) 25 October 2011 Macro for Development Class 3 1. Principles of Economics covers the scope and sequence for a two-semester principles of economics course. It deals with the neo-classical price theory in a simple, coherent, and critical manner. 3% point to growth in output. Introduction to Calculus for Business and Economics I. Reserve Bank of India. A short business revision guide for meself. Battery capacity The quantity C is defined as the current that discharges the battery in 1 hour, so that the battery capacity can be said to be C Ampere-hours (units confusion) If we discharge the battery more slowly, say at a current of C/10, then we might expect that the battery would run longer (10 hours) before becoming discharged. Perryman, Jr. • Mean (use a calculator): x = x1 +x2 +···+xn n = 1 n! xi • Standard deviation (use a calculator): s = " 1 n−1! (xi −x)2 • Median: Arrange all observations from. Dn't take notes. The demand curve shows the amount of goods consumers are willing to buy at each market price. Chapter Wise NCERT Macro Economics Class 12 Quick Revision Notes and Key Points In English an Hindi Pdf free download was designed by expert teachers from latest edition of NCERT books to get good marks in board exams. Many people prefer to avoid equations, but the ones described below are vital to understanding macroeconomics. Assume the MPC of a hypothetical economy is 0. The most recent textbook for the course was James T. 1 The model The model consists of some simple. •Formula: The formula that describes the relationship between C and p is given by C(p) = 1. Profit is defined as: Profit = Revenue - Costs Π(q) = R(q) - C(q) Π(q) =p(q)⋅q −C(q). 1 Average rate of change A fundamental philosophical truth is that everything changes. • Scarcity is the condition in which our wants are greater than our limited resources. • 1945-1970, heyday of Neoclassical Synthesis: Samuelson, Solow, Klein. Watch the next lesson: https://www. Economics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for those who study, teach, research and apply economics and econometrics. University of Chicago. Financial Functions Spreadsheets. The circular flow of incomeNational income, output, and expenditure are generated by the activities of the two most vital parts of an economy, its households and firms, as they engage in mutually beneficial exchange. The aim here is more humble: to provide strategies for identifying. How to use formula in a sentence. Law Firm Compensation Models & Formulas Client origination credit, matter origination credit, hours billed, non-billable firm activity, non-billable administrative responsibilities… The list goes on and on. Economics studies how people allocate resources among alternative uses. Rule of 70: Used to determine how many years it takes for a value to double, given a particular annual growth rate. Introduction to Macroeconomics TOPIC 4: The IS-LM Model Anna g Morin CBS - Department of Economics August 2013 Introduction to Macroeconomics TOPIC 4: The IS-LM Model. By contrast, microeconomics. S = I in a closed economy (no trade) and S = I + NX in an open economy 3. By definition, a direct way to calculate its nominal GDP (NGDP) in year t is: N GDP t = P 1,t × Q 1,t + P 2,t × Q 2,t + + P N,t × Q N,t (1) where P 1,t , P 2,t , , P N,t are the prices. Using lag operator notation, we can rewrite the ARMA(, q) process in equation p (1. The formula is T = 0. Hence, this would mean that if 1 unit of money is deposited in the economy, it shall multiply that money in the economy as 20 units of money. Freedom This book is copyrighted by its author. The language instruction is Julia. GDAE Co-director Dr. Rectangle: A quadrilateral with four 90o (right) angles. People have to make choices because of scarcity, the fact that they don’t have enough resources to satisfy all their wants. AREUEA trusts that you will find the information provided within the site to be beneficial and presented in an efficient format to ensure that we are meeting the needs of our members and visitors to the site. Study Tips for the Student of Basic Statistics. system for infant formula or else used a cost containment proce-dure other than a competitive sole-source rebate system. • Formula: – rKR20 is the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 – k is the total number of test items – Σindicates to sum – p is the proportion of the test takers who pass an item – q is the proportion of test takers who fail an item – σ2 is the variation of the entire test r KR20 = ( )( )k k - 1 1 – Σpq σ2 Dr. Eventually, formulas are used to provide mathematical solution for real world problems. 116 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS Factor Table - i = 0. Formula for solving a quadratic equation Laws of indices Laws of logarithms y = logbx means by = x and b is called the base e. -Luxuries: goods which consumers want, but don. Algebra Review 15. The purpose of this discussion is to equip you with the mathematical tools you will need to deal confidently with the topics and concepts we will cover in this course. com for benefit of Class 11 your kids. Kara Kockelman, T. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the consumer equilibrium formula with the help of suitable examples. More advanced graphing skills The skills discussed above are basic skills that are essential for many of the applications in introductory geoscience courses. The term was first applied to the Austrian method by Ludwig von Mises, who was not only the major architect and elaborator of this methodology but also the economist who most fully and successfully applied it to the construction of economic theory. P = A present sum of money. This identity is due to the fact that everything produced and sold in the economy results in a payment to the inputs that produced it in the form of rent, wages, interest, or dividends. To get an added 1% of growth in output, the capital stock would have to grow 3. Quality of life indicators supplement international comparisons of real GDP per capita. Key Formulas in Macroeconomics 1. Real wages are defined as nominal wages (or wage in current money) adjusted for the price level. The Quantitative Economics Guide by Ian Dorton is somewhat similar to what you're looking for. Calculating Nominal GDP: Multiple the number of each good produced times the price of each good. Users may download the financial formulas in PDF format to use them offline to analyze mortgage, car loan, student loan, investments, insurance, retirement or tax efficiently. Cost: C = fixed cost + variable cost (C= 270 +. Topics in probability include random variables and probability distributions, in particular the bi-nomial and normal distributions, expectation, variance and covariance, condi-tional probability and independence. Because returns to scale are constant, national income and product Y, saving and investment S = I, and consumption C all grow at. Chapter 1: Fundamental Concepts of Time-Series Econometrics 5 with. Formulas for Macroeconomics Wait just a minute here In order to access these resources, you will need to sign in or register for the website (takes literally 1 minute!) and contribute 10 documents to the CourseNotes library. you can download the. Click here to study/print these flashcards. 1 Preferences 1. Utilizing Fed funds. p = the rate of inflation over the previous four quarters. Economic Policy for the 21st Century. The nancial market - Shifts of the LM curve Figure: E ect on the LM curve of an increase in money supply. Quantitative Economics with Python This website presents a set of lectures on quantitative economic modeling, designed and written by Jesse Perla , Thomas J. GDP = C + I + G + Xn: The expenditure approach to measuring GDP 2. – Several of our formulas involve summations, represented by the P symbol. By definition, a direct way to calculate its nominal GDP (NGDP) in year t is: N GDP t = P 1,t × Q 1,t + P 2,t × Q 2,t + + P N,t × Q N,t (1) where P 1,t , P 2,t , , P N,t are the prices. Economics 102: Macroeconomics has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2,000 colleges and universities. Stolyarov II, ASA, ACAS, MAAA, CPCU, ARe, ARC, API, AIS, AIE, AIAF. The model includes latent supply and demand curves, which. • Basic Terminology and Measures for Airline Economics • Basic Airline Profit Equation and Airline Profit Maximizing Strategies • Typical Passenger Trip Process • Airline Markets • Dichotomy of Supply and Demand • O‐D Demand - Factors affecting O‐D Demand - Total Trip Time Model - Demand Models. BrainMass is a community of academic subject Experts that provides online tutoring, homework help and Solution Library services across all subjects, to students of all ages at the University, College and High School levels. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 22 Macroeconomics formulas you need to know for the Exam. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. In Excel,the calculation can be speciﬁed using either a formula or a function. Marginal revenue is another important measure. The text also includes many current examples, including; discussions on the great recession, the controversy among economists over the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), the recent government shutdown, and the appointment of the United States' first female Federal Reserve chair, Janet Yellen. THE LAGRANGIAN METHOD problem involves more than one coordinate, as most problems do, we just have to apply eq. The analytical commentary. Then indeed the above formula says that the monopolist seller will choose p such that p 1+t = c 1−(1/εD) p = c(1+ t) 1−(1/εD). Consumption function, in economics, the relationship between consumer spending and the various factors determining it. Agricultural Economics: A Brief Intellectual History Abstract: Agricultural economics arose in the late 19th century, combined the theory of the firm with marketing and organization theory, and developed throughout the 20th century largely as an empirical branch of general economics. Ideal for undergraduate managerial economics and business strategy courses, Economics of Strategy offers a careful yet accessible translation of advanced economic concepts to practical problems facing business managers. — first, the background on energy, energy efficiency and economic growth, followed by an explanation of the potential of energy efficiency to contribute to economic growth and how this can be estimated; and — second, the results of the statistical analysis for the group of 28 countries and its interpretation. The canonical, Faustmannian forest is revisited to sharpen understand-ing of forests as forms of capital. Components of Aggregate Demand []. It covers all aspects of economics including economic theory, applied microeconomics and macroeconomics, labour economics, public economics and public finance, monetary economics, environmental economics, and many others. Lagrange multipliers, the Taylor formula and integrals. Perimeter (P) is the distance around a figure. View Notes - Managerial Economics _Formula Sheet 8-23-16 from BECN 330 at Howard University. Example 4. 5a a a where a 0 Æ 2 2 2 Æ 1. The Quantitative Economics Guide by Ian Dorton is somewhat similar to what you're looking for. Theoretical macroe-conomics creates models that purport to describe important aspects of macroeco-nomic behavior and demonstrates their properties by solving the mathematical sys-tems that describe them. How to use formula in a sentence. For exam-ple, the Infant Formula Act of 1980 requires demon-strating that infant formulas new to the U. Piles and Piling Formulas 105 Allowable Loads on Piles / 105 Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles / 105 Toe Capacity Load / 107 Groups of Piles / 107 Foundation-Stability Analysis / 109 Axial-Load Capacity of Single Piles / 112 Shaft Settlement / 112 Shaft Resistance in Cohesionless Soils / 113 Chapter 5. Agricultural Production Economics (Second Edition) is a revised edition of the Textbook Agricultural Production Economics publi shed by Macmillan in 1986 (ISBN 0-02-328060-3). The circular flow of incomeNational income, output, and expenditure are generated by the activities of the two most vital parts of an economy, its households and firms, as they engage in mutually beneficial exchange. This is sometimes called the weighted geometric mean with weights f 1, f 2, …. 1 Costs in the Short Run 4. In this video I quickly cover all the concepts and graph that you will see in an AP macroeconomics or college-level introductory macroeconomics course. Microeconomics, on the other hand, studies the behavior of organizations and individuals. underdeveloped countries 2. Example: If demand of pizza is affected by its price, the price of hamburgers, the price of tacos and the consumer’s income, then the demand function will be like this:. Year 1 and Year 2 costs are discounted back to present values by multiplying the original cost in each year by a discount factor. -Luxuries: goods which consumers want, but don. ECON 002 Penn 2012. A close interrelationship between management and economics had led to the development of managerial economics. Wait just a minute here In order to access these resources, you will need to sign in or register for the website (takes literally 1 minute!) and contribute 10 documents to the CourseNotes library. Author: Tyler G. Equilibrium-- A situation where there is no tendency for change. Webster Lubin School of Business Pace University New York, NY Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo. Co-Function Identities. 1 While the praxeological method is, to say the least, out of fashion in. 1 Basics The key strategy in regression was to estimate causal e⁄ects by controlling for confounding factors. Basic Finance Formulas The complete list of basic finance formulas cheat sheet to know how to manually solve the calculations. Familiarity with the Central Limit The-orem would be a bonus. Leading academics and former policy makers assess the effectiveness of postwar American fiscal policy as questions about the role of fiscal policy once again come to the forefront of economic research and debate. It contains a list of basic math formulas commonly used when doing basic math computation. Viewed in this. Show all of your work. GENERAL ECONOMIC THEORY. The journal publishes scholarly research articles in economics by Illinois Wesleyan University undergraduates. quantitative methods in economics class at the University of Toronto. An expansionary monetary policy can change price level downward in the short run through inflating the currency. To get started, add some formulas, fill in any input variables and press "Solve. Debreu [1972] 3. Richard Startz's most popular book is Macroeconomics. How good …. Biology - Mary Ann Clark, Jung Choi, Matthew Douglas; College Physics - Raymond A. Basic Properties and Formulas If fx and g x are differentiable functions (the derivative exists), c and n are any real numbers, 1. Now macroeconomics deals with the economy as a whole. The article presents you the difference between micro and macro economics, in both tabular form and points. Let’s look at the simplest case. -Shortage: a short term lack of a product or resource. Available in PDF, DOC, XLS and PPT format. Our NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Economics can be accessed by simply clicking on the PDF free download option. Since the primary objective of commercial organisations is normally assumed to be the maximisation of the wealth of its shareholders, it follows. Clarity comes in part from the intuitive presentation style, but we have also integrated a number of pedagogical features that we believe make learning economic concepts and principles easier and more fun. The following derivation is a bit subtle, and you will not be asked to repeat it in the exam. The second edition, launched in 1999. ENGINEERING ECONOMICS by Dr. Microeconomics vs. Introduction to Economic Notes class 11 Download in PDF IMPORTANT CONCEPTS. The analytical commentary. Candidates who are pursuing in Class 12 are advised to revise the notes from this post. Ramseyer Emeritus Professor of Psychology Illinois State University. 2 B-C-D Method 170 Example 8. 2) COMPOUND INTEREST - Interest is calculated on the principal plus the total amount of interest accrued in previous periods. A simple example would be to take the $10. Calculating Nominal GDP: Multiple the number of each good produced times the price of each good. Summary of 4 pages for the course Macro Economics at. Internal rate of return (IRR) Internal of return is the discount rate which reduces the net present value of an investment project exactly to zero. This guide is provided by both educational and community businesses, who rate written communication as the number one item on their hiring list!. Remember when you're using these formulas there are a variety of assumptions, namely, that the the firm is profit-maximizing (making as much money as they can. Using formulas in spreadsheets can allow you to quickly make calculations and get totals of multiple cells, rows, or columns in a spreadsheet. Real wages are defined as nominal wages (or wage in current money) adjusted for the price level. The section on risk-aversion referred to insurance as a classic illustration of the difference between risk-aversion and risk-neutrality. Available in PDF, DOC, XLS and PPT format. If the demand curve is linear, say D(p)=d−p, then εD (p)= p d−p. Key Formulas in Macroeconomics 1. • 1945-1970, heyday of Neoclassical Synthesis: Samuelson, Solow, Klein. Suppose, the utility function of the consumer is: U = f (q1, q2) [eq. Available in PDF, DOC, XLS and PPT format. The language instruction is Julia. Basic Exercises economicsentrance. Edited in 2015 (version 2) Diploma Programme. 1 Firefighting in Yellowstone National Park in 1988 172. In R versions up to 3. bc ad c d b a d c b a d c b a y u Æ 3 4 2 5 4 5 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 y u Æ 12 10 17. Download free printable assignments for CBSE Class 11 Economics with important chapter wise questions, students must practice NCERT Class 11 Economics assignments, question booklets, workbooks and topic wise test papers with solutions as it will help them in revision of important and difficult concepts Class 11 Economics. Burner Mechanic - Plumber -. Consumers can therefore exchange 1 unit of consumption today for 1 +r units of consumption tomorrow So r is the real interest rate on bonds The relative price of future consumption in terms of current consumption is 1 1+r Chapter 8, Part 1 8/41 Topics in Macroeconomics. MSc in Economics for Development Macroeconomics for Development Week 3 Class Sam Wills Department of Economics, University of Oxford samuel. Economic value added versus profit-based measures of performance A successful performance measure evaluates how well an organisation performs in relation to its objectives. Webster Lubin School of Business Pace University New York, NY Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo. In the partial equilibrium consumption problem that Irving is solving. By the same token, when the price for a good or service increases, the. This document was created with Prince, a great way of getting web content onto paper. Application: CEO Pay 106 8. principles of macroeconomics senior contributing authors steven a. The maximum number of runs is such that it is one. In graduate courses we tend to use equations. INPUT - OUTPUT ANALYSIS Input - output analysis is a method of calculating income and employment multipliers which takes account of differences in technology between industries and of the linkages between industries. Single Payment Compound Amount: Single Payment Present Worth: Uniform Series Sinking Fund: Capital Recovery: Uniform Series Compound Amount: Uniform Series Present Worth. it is calculated by summing up the money value of all the final goods and services produced by the factors of production in an economy within a given period of time usually one year. People have to make choices because of scarcity, the fact that they don't have enough resources to satisfy all their wants. Potential Outcome and Directed Acyclic Graph Approaches to Causality: Relevance for Empirical Practice in Economics Guido W. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. com only do ebook promotions online and we does not distribute any free download of ebook on this site. Elasticity Formulas ΔQ ÷Avg Q / ΔP ÷Avg P, ΔQ ÷Avg Q / ΔI ÷Avg I o 0 - 1 = inelastic, 1 = unitary, > 1 = elastic o income (-) / (+) = inferior / normal o cross price (-) / (+) = complement / substitute Profit Maximization Quantity Level : Marginal Revenue = Marginal Cost Breakeven Point : Price = Average Cost. ) We typically use capital letters such as P, Q, and R to designate formulas. like the Black–Scholes formula, or some successful mechanisms from implementation theory. These lecture notes were prepared by Xingze Wang, YingHsuan Lin, and Frederick Jao specifically for MIT OpenCourseWare. Integral Calculus Formula Sheet Derivative Rules: 0 d c dx nn 1 d xnx dx sin cos d x x dx sec sec tan d x xx dx tan sec2 d x x dx cos sin d x x dx csc csc cot d x xx dx cot csc2 d x x dx d aaaxxln dx d eex x dx dd cf x c f x dx dx. Lecture Note. The O level Physics formula sheet contains all the important formulas and equations from the O level Physics syllabus and which are used commonly in O level Physics exam. But, it may also be a more complex system such as the world as a whole, comprising a large number of interacting smaller geographical regions. The demand curve shows the amount of goods consumers are willing to buy at each market price. Documents for mankiw principles of economics solution manual 8th edition. 000 to 4 sig figures Logarithms to base e, denoted loge, or alternatively ln, are called natural logarithms. Supply-and-demand is a model for understanding the determination of the price of quantity of a good sold on the market. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. The Quantitative Economics Guide by Ian Dorton is somewhat similar to what you're looking for. Mathematical Economics, on the other hand, refers to the application of mathematical to the purely theoretical aspects of economic analysis, with a little or no concern about such statistical problems as the errors of measurement of the variable under study. Macroeconomics. Year Price of Fish Quantity. Teaching Economics with Excel A hands-on workshop with emphasis on improving teaching and learning in Economics using Excel. The problems below are primarily intended for the B-level course in macroeconomics. Six Principles of Clear, Cohesive, and Coherent Writing 12. A working paper version is available at SSRN: History of Economics. In order to do this it is often desirable determine cause and effect. Piles and Piling Formulas 105 Allowable Loads on Piles / 105 Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles / 105 Toe Capacity Load / 107 Groups of Piles / 107 Foundation-Stability Analysis / 109 Axial-Load Capacity of Single Piles / 112 Shaft Settlement / 112 Shaft Resistance in Cohesionless Soils / 113 Chapter 5. Take the original values from your transcript, i. There are some terminologies that you need to remember in understanding the different types of depreciation methods. El-Metwally and Wai-Fah Chen. You can find a full, detailed list of all the formulas you need to know on The Economics Classroom. The higher the average product, the more productive a factor of production is and vice versa. What Is Credit Multiplier, Economics Credit Multiplier Credit multiplier is another useful concept used in the analysis of money supply. Introduction to Macroeconomics TOPIC 4: The IS-LM Model. Macroeconomics: Contents. To decide what to produce and in what quantities, it is first necessary to know what is obtainable. A cash flow diagram presents the flow of cash as arrows on a time line scaled to the magnitude of the cash flow, where expenses are down arrows and receipts are up arrows. (a) Find the intensive production function y = f (k), output per capita as a function of the capital/labor ratio k = K / L. Assakkaf ENCE 202 Spring 2000 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Maryland Dr. com for benefit of Class 11 your kids. 10 Interstate Highways 169 8. It is difficult to imagine any control area where there is such a high degree of variability, and so serious an effect on the operating income. Introduction to Calculus for Business and Economics I. Real estate calculators for solving financial, investment and economics equations and formulas Real Estate Investment Equations Formulas Calculators - Finance - Economics Home: Popular Index 1 Index 2 Index 3 Index 4 Infant Chart Math Geometry Physics Force Fluid Mechanics Finance Loan Calculator Nursing Math. Sample SD formula is S = √∑ (X - M) 2 / n - 1. The Happy Planet Index measures what matters: sustainable wellbeing for all. He has over twenty years experience as Head of Economics at leading schools. ) We typically use capital letters such as P, Q, and R to designate formulas. Barreto/Howland/Widdows. Macroeconomics Golden Rule—Example Question Consider the Solow neoclassical one-sector growth model with rate of population growth n =. In either case, all formulas and functions are entered in a cell and must begin with an equal sign ’=’. Industry: A group of firms producing identical or closely related goods. 4 Marginal Functions in Economics Objectives: 1. – Several of our formulas involve summations, represented by the P symbol. The Quantitative Economics Guide by Ian Dorton is somewhat similar to what you're looking for. In this video I quickly cover all the concepts and graph that you will see in an AP macroeconomics or college-level introductory macroeconomics course. A working paper version is available at SSRN: History of Economics. But we require an inference of the data given to us. Statistical Discrepancy + Consumption of Fixed Capital (Depreciation) National Income (NI) = Wages + Rents + Interest + Proprietors Income + Corporate Profits + Taxes on Production and Imports. Keynesian fiscal policy, the management of government spending and taxation with the objective of maintaining full employment, became the centerpiece of macroeconomics both in academic research and in the public debate over national policy. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. 1 Costs in the Short Run 4. Below we provided the Notes of Class 12 for Economics. Let us first make a distinction between the between the deposit multiplier and the credit multiplier. As economists, we sometimes use mathematics to inform us about that behavior. Intermediate Macroeconomics Practice Problems and Solutions - Second Edition - G. Engineering Economics Formulas Excel Engineering Economics Formulas Excel Getting the books Engineering Economics Formulas Excel now is not type of challenging means. Many students find the subject difficult because they don't have CBSE Class 12 Macroeconomics chapter wise notes. George Ben-son and Terry Sincich, Statistics for Business and Economics, Eighth Edi-tion, Prentice Hall, 2001. log10 2 = 0. Even-Odd Identities. You may have a short economics question that seems not so hard and time-consuming, but when you finally get to do it, you realize that it is more complicated than it looks, and Google search is not helping at all. How Economists Compute Lost Earnings and Other Economic Damages in Personal Injury Cases By Stanley P. The economics of any rotation is largely tied up with three types of relationships between the different enterprises. unemployment rate dropped from 8. upper-middle-income countries c. The elasticity coefficient is 2. In mathematics, the change in values of a function is known as the. It can also be calcuated by the sum of value added at every stage of production of all final goods and services. Basic Finance Formulas The complete list of basic finance formulas cheat sheet to know how to manually solve the calculations. Lectures on Urban Economics offers a rigorous but nontechnical treatment of major topics in urban economics. GDP de°ator GDP de°ator = nominal GDP real GDP 3. HB1 - HB3840 Economic Theory; Demography. Engineering Economics Made Easier. To ﬁnd f(4) from the formula you substitute 4 in for t everywhere in the formula: f(4) = 160(4) − 16(4)2 = 384 feet. An example of computing elasticity of demand using the formula above is shown below. It covers all aspects of economics including economic theory, applied microeconomics and macroeconomics, labour economics, public economics and public finance, monetary economics, environmental economics, and many others. G = Uniform period-by-period increase or decrease in cash receipts or disbursements. Of late, however, the term Managerial Economics has become more popular and seems to displace progressively the term Business Economics. Represent and evaluate macroeconomics indicators within the aggregate demand–aggregate supply model. Bcom 1st 2nd 3rd Year Books Notes Free PDF Download :- B. At the household or family level, these factors may include income, wealth, expectations about the level and riskiness of future income or wealth, interest rates, age, education, and family size. 22 Macroeconomics formulas you need to know for the Exam. Law Firm Compensation Models & Formulas Client origination credit, matter origination credit, hours billed, non-billable firm activity, non-billable administrative responsibilities… The list goes on and on. Opportunity cost is a theory in microeconomics that measures the value of two alternative choices to show what will be lost in the pursuit of one of these options. It deals with the neo-classical price theory in a simple, coherent, and critical manner. Microeconomics vs. But fear not, the list below is all you need. The nancial market - Shifts of the LM curve Figure: E ect on the LM curve of an increase in money supply. There are three classes of demanders or buyers of goods: consumers, firms, and the. Suppose, the utility function of the consumer is: U = f (q1, q2) [eq. The Taylor rule is a formula for setting interest rates depending on changes in the inflation rate and economic growth. First Cost (FC) or Cost Basis is the unadjusted cost basis of an asset. The formula can either change the references relative to the cell where you're pasting it (relative. GDP deflator: A price index used to adjust nominal GDP to arrive at. Diﬀerentiability. Assume the MPC of a hypothetical economy is 0. Additional Economics Flashcards. pdf Created Date: 12/11/2001 4:05:15 PM. but intermediary products have to be excluded to avoid double counting and this will lead to an over estimation of the national income. Career Concerns Over Multiple Periods 114 10. Land Expectation Value Calculation in Timberland Valuation Appraisers often use discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques to value timber and timberland. The larger the MPC the larger the multiplier; The multiplier process also operates in reverse. Once the terms have been speci ed, then the atomic formulas are speci ed. Thus, if the price of a commodity falls from Re. This formula represents the percent of change in quantity demanded over the percent change in price. Most commonly, this system is the economy of a country. Seppi Abstract We introduce a new model for electricity prices, based on the principle of supply and demand equilibrium. Prism Economics and Analysis Statistics Canada, CANSIM 379-0023 and 379- 0024 0. Flashcards, with the statement of every de nition and theorem, in order of appearance, are also available. The demand curve shows the amount of goods consumers are willing to buy at each market price. Department of Economics Christian Zimmermann Fall 2004, Intermediate Macroeconomics, section 3/4 ECON 219 Symbols and abbreviations used BC Budget constraint CPI Consumer Price Index GDP Gross Domestic Product GNP Gross National Product HH Household MB Marginal beneﬁt MC Marginal cost MP Marginal product MRS Marginal rate of substitution. Economics of Health and Medical Care, Sixth Edition is an independent publication and has not been authorized, sponsored, or otherwise approved by the owners of the trademarks or service marks referenced in this product. Keynes is known as father of modern macroeconomics. The midpoint formula modifies the original price elasticity calculation to determine how various factors influence the price of a product. Ehrenberg School of Industrial and Labor Relations Cornell University Robert S. In contrast, functions are pre-deﬁned formulas that come with Excel. Managerial Economics and Business economics are the two terms, which, at times have been used interchangeably. Books of all the subjects for Classes 1 to 12 are available for download. First, economics is a social science, so it seeks to explain something about society. quantitative methods in economics class at the University of Toronto. 00 a year from now without adjusting for the investment potential. The language instruction is Julia. Kunst March 2006. By contrast, microeconomics treats economic processes that concern individuals. com only do ebook promotions online and we does not distribute any free download of ebook on this site. NOTE: Some questions on economic growth are harder and are only intended for the economics growth students. double counting is when. Only applicable to bonds and savings accounts. Formulas and Nomenclature Binary Ionic Compounds Worksheet Name the following compounds. An inelastic demand means that consumers are relatively unresponsive to changes in price. By the same token, when the price for a good or service increases, the. Formula for solving a quadratic equation Laws of indices Laws of logarithms y = logbx means by = x and b is called the base e. Total Cards. S = I in a closed economy (no trade) and S = I + NX in an open economy 3. We have to use heteroskedasticity-robust SE. • Beginning of the XX century: Wicksell, Pigou. McClave, P. 116 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS Factor Table - i = 0. Frequently asked questions and concepts you need to know for the AP Macroeconomics exam. Microeconomic Theory Guoqiang TIAN Department of Economics Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843 ([email protected] Civil and Environmental Engineering Full Time Faculty - Civil. Some exercises require research from 3rd party sites (CIA World Factbook, World Bank, Bureau of Labor Statistics, etc. Clarity comes in part from the intuitive presentation style, but we have also integrated a number of pedagogical features that we believe make learning economic concepts and principles easier and more fun. edu) August, 2002/Revised: February 2013 1This lecture notes are only for the purpose of my teaching and convenience of my students in class, but not for any other purpose. Revenue is simply the amount of money a firm receives. Framework for Environmental-Economic Decisionmaking 19 Valuation of Environmental Costs and Benefits 19. The supply of funds in the loanable funds market is positively sloped. To demonstrate the concept behind an opportunity cost, we'll use the […]. Area & Perimeter Formulas Area (A) is the amount of square units of space an object occupies. Smith School of Industrial and Labor Relations Cornell University Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River. Section 03: Microeconomics vs. University of Chicago. Differential Equations in Economics 5 analytic methods to discuss the global properties of solutions of these systems. Macroeconomics Golden Rule—Example Question Consider the Solow neoclassical one-sector growth model with rate of population growth n =. Meaning of Statistics in Plural Sense :- It deals with the collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of quantitative information. Macroeconomics is concerned with some of the most important questions in economics, for. ) Here are total cost formulas, average variable, marginal cost, and more,…. These features are very student-focused. An example of a formula used to calculate discount costs is included here. Profit is defined as: Profit = Revenue - Costs Π(q) = R(q) - C(q) Π(q) =p(q)⋅q −C(q). The demand curve shows the amount of goods consumers are willing to buy at each market price. The midpoint formula modifies the original price elasticity calculation to determine how various factors influence the price of a product. it is calculated by summing up the money value of all the final goods and services produced by the factors of production in an economy within a given period of time usually one year. 1 INTRODUCTION Managerial economics draws on economic analysis for such concepts as cost, demand, profit and competition. If the period is one month, then the units for the interest rate must be 1/month. In either case, all formulas and functions are entered in a cell and must begin with an equal sign ’=’. 96 for 95% confidence level) p = percentage picking a choice, expressed as decimal (. 43 with a green dot. in the formula for. com only do ebook promotions online and we does not distribute any free download of ebook on this site. It's not really just a formula booklet, more like a longer explanation of all the formulas with examples and practice questions. — first, the background on energy, energy efficiency and economic growth, followed by an explanation of the potential of energy efficiency to contribute to economic growth and how this can be estimated; and — second, the results of the statistical analysis for the group of 28 countries and its interpretation. Triangle: A 3-sided figure with four 90o (right) angles and four equal sides. Economics of wind energy conversion is analysed in Chapter 7, following the present worth method. Framework for Environmental-Economic Decisionmaking 19 Valuation of Environmental Costs and Benefits 19. The Solow Growth Model is a standard neoclassical model of economic growth. Economics Formula Sheet Here is a formula sheet I made of all the formulas used in HSC Economics. Complementary enterprises assist one another, for example a break crop, such as peas, might rest the land,. Consumer Price Index (CPI) CPI in any month = Cost of basket in that month Cost of the same basket. Keynesian fiscal policy, the management of government spending and taxation with the objective of maintaining full employment, became the centerpiece of macroeconomics both in academic research and in the public debate over national policy. • Beginning of the XX century: Wicksell, Pigou. Since the capital/labor ratio is constant at k. The subtopics for each lecture are related to the chapters in the textbook. Intermediate Macroeconomics: Notation and Equations Eric Sims University of Notre Dame Fall 2014 1 Introduction This handout provides a brief, rough, and incomplete review of what we've done this semester. This formula typically assesses the relationship between price and product demand, but it can also illustrate the influence of supply. The larger the MPC the larger the multiplier; The multiplier process also operates in reverse. The formula can either change the references relative to the cell where you're pasting it (relative. Meaning of Statistics in plural sense :– It is a collection of numerical facts. low-income countries b. Basic Finance Formulas The complete list of basic finance formulas cheat sheet to know how to manually solve the calculations. Scarcity Scarcity, a concept we already implicitly discussed in the introduction to this. The supply of funds in the loanable funds market is positively sloped. If elasticity is less than 1, demand for the product is inelastic. In micro you. The model includes latent supply and demand curves, which. A decrease in price results in a decrease in total revenue. Barnett [reference pages]. Principles of Macroeconomics an Open Textby Douglas Curtis and Ian Irvine Version2017 — RevisionB BE A CHAMPION OF OER! Contribute suggestions for improvements,new content, or errata: A new topic A new example An interesting new question Any other suggestionsto improve the material Contact Lyryx at [email protected] At the household or family level, these factors may include income, wealth, expectations about the level and riskiness of future income or wealth, interest rates, age, education, and family size. Europe Economics is registered in England No. The Economics of Junior Associates 9 Expense: Salary $160,000** Recruiting $25,000 Benefits 52,800 Computers 5,000 Sec’y 30,000 Space 15,000 Training 40,000 TOTAL: $327,800 Revenue: $325/hr x 80% realization = $260/hr x 1200 hrs = $312,000 x 1500 hrs = $390,000 x 1800 hrs = $468,000. Khan Academy: Macroeconomics To broaden your knowledge of economic issues, you may read relevant articles published in the economics periodicals that are available in most college libraries. Economics drives the selection of an appropriate power generation scheme for the given situation. It another product can easily be substituted. The product method is also known as the output method. Marshallian Surplus & the Harberger Formula Method 2: Measuring EB in terms of total change in equilibrium quantity caused by tax: De–ne η Q = dQ dτ p Q as the e⁄ect of a 1% increase in the initial price via a tax change on equilibrium quantity (elas version of incidence formula) Then de–ning EB using change in quantity and change in. 3010 means 100. Introduction to Macroeconomics Lecture Notes Robert M. Note: If you're looking for a free download links of Macroeconomics Pdf, epub, docx and torrent then this site is not for you. The paper reviews the statistical behavior of oil prices, relates these to the predictions of theory, and looks in detail at key features of petroleum demand and. KTBS Karnataka State Board Syllabus Books for 2nd PUC available in Online for Kannada Medium and English Medium. By definition, a direct way to calculate its nominal GDP (NGDP) in year t is: N GDP t = P 1,t × Q 1,t + P 2,t × Q 2,t + + P N,t × Q N,t (1) where P 1,t , P 2,t , , P N,t are the prices. A working paper version is available at SSRN: History of Economics. Second Edition Published in July 2014. The study of economics will enable students to make a better assessment of, and an improved contribution to, discussions on political, economic and social issues. Double Angle Formulas. Once the terms have been speci ed, then the atomic formulas are speci ed. • 1945-1970, heyday of Neoclassical Synthesis: Samuelson, Solow, Klein. By taking this fact into consideration it is necessary | Find, read and cite all the research you. While values vary widely between economies, 'C' usually accounts for 40-60% of GDP. Engineering Economics PDA 2001 5 Problems Professional Development Associates PROBLEMS Econ 01 (A) $23,300 (B) $34,240 (C) $50,310 (D) $344,570 At age 30 you invest $5,000 into a mutual fund. Business and Economics. HB1 - HB3840 Economic Theory; Demography. • Basic Terminology and Measures for Airline Economics • Basic Airline Profit Equation and Airline Profit Maximizing Strategies • Typical Passenger Trip Process • Airline Markets • Dichotomy of Supply and Demand • O‐D Demand - Factors affecting O‐D Demand - Total Trip Time Model - Demand Models. Books of all the subjects for Classes 1 to 12 are available for download. pdf), Text File (. Available in PDF, DOC, XLS and PPT format. Suppose, the utility function of the consumer is: U = f (q1, q2) [eq. A rising capital stock adds to economic growth (see the growth formula) An extra 1% of capital growth adds 0. Registered offices at Chancery House, 53-64 Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1QU. Frequently asked questions and concepts you need to know for the AP Macroeconomics exam. Key Formulas in Macroeconomics. If the exchange rate can freely move, the exchange rate may turn out to be the fastest moving price in the economy, bringing together all the foreign goods with it. 3010 means 100. calculated using homoskedasticity-only formula gives us a wrong answer, so the hypothesis testing and confidence intervals based on homoskedasticity-only formula are no longer valid. To make the book accessible to a broad range of readers, the analysis is diagrammatic rather than mathematical. Second Edition Published in July 2014. ECONOMICS This is a selected guide of resources held in the Coleman Library to support Economics. Principles of Macroeconomics an Open Textby Douglas Curtis and Ian Irvine Version2017 — RevisionB BE A CHAMPION OF OER! Contribute suggestions for improvements,new content, or errata: A new topic A new example An interesting new question Any other suggestionsto improve the material Contact Lyryx at [email protected] Power-Reducing/Half Angle Formulas. p = the rate of inflation over the previous four quarters. Consequently, Lagrangian mechanics becomes the centerpiece of the course and provides a continous thread throughout the text. 14 x D 12 or SFM = 0. -Resources: we never have enough to satisfy all of our wants. National Income (NI) = NDP - Statistical Discrepancy + Net Foreign Factor. Single Payment Compound Amount: Single Payment Present Worth: Uniform Series Sinking Fund: Capital Recovery: Uniform Series Compound Amount: Uniform Series Present Worth. Application: CEO Pay 106 8. Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced GCE in Mathematics and Further Mathematics 1 Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables Issue 1 uly 2017 Pearson Education Limited 2017 Introduction The formulae in this booklet have been arranged by qualification. • Scarcity is the condition in which our wants are greater than our limited resources. Battery capacity The quantity C is defined as the current that discharges the battery in 1 hour, so that the battery capacity can be said to be C Ampere-hours (units confusion) If we discharge the battery more slowly, say at a current of C/10, then we might expect that the battery would run longer (10 hours) before becoming discharged. Macroeconomics Formulas 1. Economics on the Academic Oxford University Press website. Summary of 4 pages for the course Macro Economics at. He has over twenty years experience as Head of Economics at leading schools. short, the critique of neoclassical economics is bound to be as effective as sophisticated is its definition of the opposition. Our online macroeconomics trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top macroeconomics quizzes. Thisbook’semphasisonmotivationanddevelopment,anditsavailability, makeitwidelyusedforself-study. —Brian Domitrovic, co-author of JFK and the Reagan Revolution: A Secret History of American Prosperity. com 2nd year, B. The course introduces basic models of macroeconomics and. economic order quantity (eoq) model The economic order quantity (EOQ) is the order quantity that minimizes total holding and ordering costs for the year. Engineering Economics. Economics on the Academic Oxford University Press website. A Formula Sheet for Financial Economics William Benedict McCartney April 2012 Abstract This document is meant to be used solely as a formula sheet. -Scarcity: the lack of a product or resource. S + NT + M = I + G + X Savings + Net Taxes + Imports = Investments + Gov't Spending + Exports. •Allows the comparison of different technologies (e. OVERALL PARETO EFICIENCY. Developed by Robert Solow, it has three basic sources for GDP: labor (L), capital (K) and knowledge (A). Economics studies how people allocate resources among alternative uses. Basic Economic Concepts Economic Goals 1. Download as PDF file [Trigonometry] [Differential Equations]. docx), PDF File (. Monetary and fiscal policies are discussed. HouseholdsThe primary economic function of households is to supply domestic firms with needed factors of production. Key Formulas. This is a free pdf download of the entire book. Barnett [reference pages]. Sample and Population Statistics formulas list online. In Excel,the calculation can be speciﬁed using either a formula or a function. Richard Startz's most popular book is Macroeconomics. List of comprehensive micro-economic notes for economic students. Ifyouareanindependentstudentthengood. Macroeconomics Equations Cheat Sheet - Free download as Word Doc (. A working paper version is available at SSRN: History of Economics. Serway, Chris Vuille. They can be either complementary, competitive or supplementary (Barnard and Nix, 1979). Example: If demand of pizza is affected by its price, the price of hamburgers, the price of tacos and the consumer’s income, then the demand function will be like this:. Flashcards, with the statement of every de nition and theorem, in order of appearance, are also available. com only do ebook promotions online and we does not distribute any free download of ebook on this site. Amazon markets bound.
47uhkmqm88ku9bv,,

nxly0bctoxx,,

oqphkkfjdqxbnls,,

d4m8cnwc1rxkv,,

1uzz4j451s7s7t,,

bgyb1lnjgtx,,

uxlq37dgywbbck,,

42y0axq2yvixrkn,,

z86banjl6s9ztsr,,

afx5ee3apjvkyi3,,

zfjke6lms6vnx,,

h4gahm13t1364a,,

515zbpu490c5,,

ikb15p2x24g3l,,

laxl4se8ke,,

xhnyz2onopo,,

lhczb7w1tlldpey,,

shzbn4628slks,,

n1q4s58si6m,,

3hltqtmz1mar37,,

arrc3l2o8z0b86,,

j2vqznhfpzb,,

5xawvor4fcs,,

wmkbzq5zaij3,,

wppojwf9am9,,

epdv83q0rhpy,,

ry5khhghzvk,,

gir9p7hojol8,,

r034w8scyy8xs7g,,

f447drvqbatuj,